The results of 31 resections of the liver performed upon patients with cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma are reported herein. The lesions were discovered mainly during routine echographic surveillance. Twenty-five of these patients with small tumors underwent a segmentary or subsegmentary resection. Intraoperative ultrasonography proved to be of paramount importance in these instances as it helped to recognize the lesion and outline the limits of the resection. In another 11 instances of primary tumors of the liver in patients with cirrhosis who underwent laparotomy, findings from intraoperative ultrasonography advised against exeretic operation because other intrahepatic lesions or neoplastic thrombi in portal branches were detected. The operative mortality rate in the 31 patients who underwent resection of the liver was 12.9 per cent. The actuarial three year survival rate is 58 per cent. The presence of an intact peritumoral capsule seems to be the best prognostic factor.